Do Bunions Require Surgery

posted on 06 Jun 2015 03:05 by gutturalevidenc75
Overview
Bunions Hard Skin A bunion is an unnatural, bony hump that forms at the base of the big toe where it attaches to the foot. Often, the big toe deviates toward the other toes. When this occurs, the base of the big toe pushes outward on the first metatarsal bone, which is the bone directly behind the big toe, forming a bunion. If this happens on the little toe and fifth metatarsal, it's called a bunionette. Because a bunion occurs at a joint, where the toe bends in normal walking, your entire body weight rests on the bunion at each step. Bunions can be extremely painful. They're also vulnerable to excess pressure and friction from shoes and can lead to the development of calluses.

Causes
Various factors, including a tight gastrocnemius (or calf) muscle and instability of the arch, contribute to formation of bunions. The tight calf muscle is often hereditary and can cause a bunion because it forces more loading, or pressure, on the forefoot. Ultimately, this can contribute to instability in the bones, ligaments and tendons that form the arch. When it?s unstable, the arch starts collapsing and the metatarsal can shift. Arch instability can also be brought on by obesity, again, due to chronic overloading of the foot. But, by far, the most common contributing factor is childbirth. Bunions are most common in women who have had children. This happens because the hormones that affect their pelvis during childbirth also affect their feet. The hormone is called relaxin, and it allows bones to move and spread. Over time, it can cause the structure of a woman?s feet to gradually stretch and the metatarsal to shift.

Symptoms
The symptoms of hallux valgus usually center on the bunion. The bunion is painful. The severe hallux valgus deformity is also distressing to many and becomes a cosmetic problem. Finding appropriate shoe wear can become difficult, especially for women who want to be fashionable but have difficulty tolerating fashionable shoe wear. Finally, increasing deformity begins to displace the second toe upward and may create a situation where the second toe is constantly rubbing on the shoe.

Diagnosis
Generally, observation is adequate to diagnose a bunion, as the bump is obvious on the side of the foot or base of the big toe. However, your physician may order X-rays that will show the extent of the deformity of the foot.

Non Surgical Treatment
Treatment for bunions ranges from non-surgical to surgical. Conservative, non-surgical treatments are aimed to help alleviate some of the discomfort and pain from the bunion, they will not fix the problem. Some of the recommendations would be shoe modification to make room for the bunion, wearing wide toed shoes, or adding padding and cushioning to your shoes. Bunions

Surgical Treatment
Surgery may be recommended for some bunions, but only when symptoms are severe enough to warrant such intervention. Surgery for a bunion, called a bunionectomy, is done in hospital usually under general anaesthesia. The surgeon can often realign the bone behind the big toe by cutting the ligaments at the joint. For a severe bunion, you may need to have the bone cut in a technique called an osteotomy. Wires or screws may be inserted to keep the bones in line, and excess bone may be shaved off or removed. Potential complications of surgery include recurrence of the bunion, inadequate correction, overcorrection (the toe now points inwards), continued pain, and limited movement of the big toe.
Tags: bunions